Pneumatic cylinders come with a whole range of variable attributes, from size to load and speed capacity as well as options on port locations and mountings. There are also considerations around the design and type of pneumatic Standard Cylinder you want in relation to the application and its working environment. Below, we unfold some of the choices to be made when choosing cylinders, and provide a little guidance on which ones are suitable for which application.
Once a minimum cylinder bore size is determined the next step to the selection of a hydraulic cylinder is to select an appropriate rod size. Most standard off the shelf cylinders usually come with one or two rod options. Selecting the required rod size requires careful consideration of the stroke length required which affects the rod buckling strength. At Berendsen we use programs that calculate whether rod buckling strength for a given rod size and stroke will be suitable for a given load. If you need assistance with this or need a more customised hydraulic selection guide, simply contact us.
In addition to rod buckling, bearing loads is another important consideration in the selection of a hydraulic cylinder. As the stroke length of a cylinder increases, the resultant bearing loads on the piston rod also become greater. To keep these bearing loads from exceeding design limitations stop tubes are usually used. Generally, for applications with strokes greater than 1000 mm, stop tubes are required.
When selecting from standard rod options it is recommended that the smaller rod for a given bore only be used for short stroke push loading or reduced pressure applications, and the larger rod offered be used when wanting to obtain maximum reliability and fatigue life of the rod. However, if it is determined that the required rod diameter exceeds that of the largest available within the selected cylinder bore size, it would then be necessary to reconsider design parameters. Alternatively, it may mean that the application warrants the design of a custom made hydraulic cylinder.
Pneumatic cylinders are usually made of brass, steel, stainless steel, aluminium, engineered polymers or a combination of several materials. What material you choose will depend on its suitability for the operational environment. The same goes for seal materials, but alternatives can be specified for operation in hazardous environments.
Sometimes standard components just won't do the job and you need a custom design. This may mean devising a new configuration for standard and/or modified components, or inventing a whole new unit. If you're looking for a high level of efficiency, complex motion control, or components that don't presently fit standard combinations, you might consider this option. These days, intelligent design is much more able to incorporate specialised configurations and will create custom products that precisely fit your requirements.
The first and most critical step is to determine the Cylinder Operating Pressure, The basic operating pressures that are commonly used range from 500 psi to 10000 psi.
A quick formula for finding the approximate bore size for the extending direction of the cylinder is as follows:
F = forces required (lbs.)
P = operating pressure (psi.)
D = bore diameter (in.)
D = F / (Pi/4* P)
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